PRODUCTS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH
ACIDIFIERS
pH-A
Water Acidifier
ENCIDMAX-F
Specialised Liquid Feed Acidifer
ADSORBENT
PANISORB
The best water adsorbent
CLEANERS
EGG-KLEEN
Multi spectrum EGG Cleaner
ENCIKLIN-PL56
Speciality Pipeline / Nipple / Cooling pads / Equipments Cleaner
POLYCAR-NC
Alkaline cleaner cum detergent
ENCIVET-HW
The Ideal Hand Wash
DETERGENTS
ENCIQUAT-BKC
Benzal konium chloride
UNIDROP
Liquid Detergent Concentrate
DISINFECTANTS
C-909
Premium Disinfectant Concentrate
CHLORAMINE-T
Disinfectant
ENCIKOC-CC
Anti Coccidial Disinfectant
ENCIKOL-PH
Broad Spectrum Super Disinfectant
ENCIFORM-RM
Powder Fumigant cum Litter Disinfectant
ENCIMOX-PT
Oxidising Disinfectant
MONOALD-F
Strong Formaldehyde 37% min
POWERKLEEN
Strong Black Phenyle
FUMIGANT
ENCIFORM-RM
Powder Fumigant cum Litter Disinfectant
SANITISERS
ENCICHLOR-AH
Sodium Hypochlorite 10%
ENCIVET-WT
Unique Water Sanitiser
ENCIPHOR-PLUS
Iodophor Sanitiser
HOSPEX-GN
Special Cleaning Agent Cum fly Repellent
ENCICHLOR-MOR
Chorine Tabs / Powder
ENCIDET-MARS
(DAIRY acidic cleaning concentrate)
INSTA-DIOX
Stabilised Chlorine Dioxide
AQUACULTURE
ENCIKOL-AH
Broad Spectrum disinfectant
ENCIQUAT BKC500 (50%)
(BKC 50%)
MONOALD-F
Strong Formaldehyde 37% min
FOR DAIRY
ENCIPHOR-PLUS
Iodophor Sanitiser
AQUASURF I 100
Iodophor concentrate 10%
AQUASURF I 200
Iodophor Concentrate 20%
ENCIDET-MARS
Speciality acidic cleaning concentrate
UNIDROP
Liquid Detergent Concentrate
SPECIALITY CHEMICALS
ENCIQUAT BKC800 (80%)
BKC 80%
ENCIQUAT-LPC
Lauryl Pyridinium Chloride
ENCIFAB-SAF
Silicone Defoamer
ENCIFLOK C
Polymeric Flocculating Agents
ENCIKOL - PXBM
Anti slime agent for paper factories
FOAMSTAB-DSN
Foam Stabiliser
2:4:6 Trichlorophenol Na Salt
ENCIQUAT BKC 1000
(BKC Powder)
MLRG
Mould Release Agent
FEED ADDITIVES
SODIUM BUTYRATE
Speciality Feed Additive
COPPER SULPHATE
GENERAL PRODUCTS
INSTA-GLUE
(Clear Multi-purpose Glue)
INSTRUMENTS
FUMIGATOR
PHMETER
     
  NEWS & INFO  
 
DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTION IN POULTRY
 
 
     
  The good performance of a bird is to a major extent dependent upon the high standards of hygiene and sanitation. The intensity of disinfection programme depends upon a variety of factors such as the density of birds, number of sheds, units, proximity to other farms, stocking rate, cycle of housing birds, housing design etc.

DEFINITIONS

Generally, one term is mistaken for the other. A correct definition is as under:
Biocides : The term biocide covers a wide range of products and applications where a biocidal product, either biological or chemical, is generally used to destroy, prevent the growth of, or otherwise exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism. Disinfection and sanitation formulations are often referred to as biocides.
Cleaning : to remove dirt and soil and make visibly clean

Detergents  : aids for cleaning (removal of visible dirt)

Disinfection : to destroy harmful microorganisms to an acceptable level

Sanitation    : refers normally to cleaning

Sterilization : to render all microorganisms inactive

DISINFECTANT

A disinfectant is an agent which is capable of killing the organisms and is thus useful for maintaining an effective infection free status. They are usually chemical agents. It must be impressed that cleansing is essential prior to the programme of disinfection. So without cleansing, disinfectants are not fully effective.

Disinfection of sheds implies the elimination of all the micro organisms from the house which are pathogenic or have the potential to produce the disease. In other words, we can convert the shed from the potentially infective state to that of free from infection.

Qualities of a good disinfectant:

1. Disinfectants should effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, virus and should have a wide spectrum of activity.
2. Be soluble in water and act in low dilutions
3. Be fast acting
4. Not be harmful to birds and humans working at the farm
5. Be non corrosive
6. Be bio-degradable
7. Be economical
8. Activity should be enhanced when mixed rightly with other disinfectants

NATURAL DISINFECTANTS

Sunlight and heat

Action of heat:

Dry heat is generally applied in poultry sheds with the help of flame guns and moist heat in the form of steam jets. Moist heat is more effective than dry heat. Generally bacteria are killed at 60oC to 70oC when exposed even for five minutes. However, no bacteria can survive at 80oC even for a few minutes. Spores of some organisms may exceptionally survive even after the application of heat at 300oC for 10 minutes. Hence, transitory heat from the flame gun would be uncertain to achieve effective disinfection. Disinfectants along with detergents will be more useful for cleaning the poultry appliances. Hence, detergents will have to be added for enhancement of the effects before applying the moist heat to the infected surface. The presence of organic matter in the shed may interfere with disinfection by heat.

CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS


Alcohols: Recommended for instruments, skin preparation, spot disinfection. They are rapidly bactericidal but not sporicidal. It corrodes metal.

Caustic soda / lye are used in veterinary medicine for disinfecting stables, farms and premises, but are corrosive, difficult to handle and hygroscopic. Improper storage like being exposed to atmosphere etc., makes it stone hard.

Chlorine: Recommended for floors and cotton fabrics. The have a tendency to bleach fabric, corrode metals, unstable in hard water and must always be freshly prepared.

Detergents: Used as cleaning agents, but have very little bacterial activity. They are effective in the mechanical removal of organisms.
Detergents break the bond between the dirt and the surface it is adhered to. Dirt can be organic / inorganic. Organic dirts are derived from animal or vegetable matter. This includes oils, fats, proteins, starch and carbohydrates. Inorganic dirts are from the earth like scale, magnesium deposits etc.

Alkaline phase detergents are best to remove organic soil whereas acidic phase detergents to remove inorganic soil.

For effective cleaning the main characteristics required for a detergent are:

- ability to solubilize grease, fat, proteins etc.
- ability to give wetting power and help penetration of the dirt
- ability to bring and keep in suspension undissolved salts and dirt
- ability to leave the surface free from traces of itself and dirt
- to prevent metal ions in hard water and the organic dirt depositing on equipment surfaces

If a disinfectant or a sanitiser can also be incorporated in a detergent in the right combination, it gives additional advantages.

Formaldehyde Gas: Recommended for cabinet and incubator disinfection. They are sporicidal and non corrosive but takes a long time for effective disinfection. It is pungent, toxic to skin and nuclear membrane.

Glutaraldehyde : is widely used because of the large spectrum of its actions being bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal and sporicidal. It is useful for disinfecting surgical instruments, etc.,

Hydrogen peroxide : is useful for cleaning and disinfecting wounds and as a mouth wash in very dilute solutions. The concentrated product is corrosive, difficult to handle and very unstable.

Iodine : Recommended for skin preparations. Thermometers, utensils, dishes, as a tincture and also for milking and dairy operation. The advantages are for both cleaning and disinfecting, non staining and leaves residual antibacterial effect. Loss of activity is indicated by the fading colour. Iodophors are somewhat unstable.

Phenols: Recommended for equipments, floors, excreta etc. It is not inactivated by organic matter, soap or hard water. It is slow acting and must be used in soft water. It has an objectionable odour.

QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS

These agents in aqueous media undergo ionisation to form cations having surface active properties. The cationic surfactants have bactericidal action in high dilutions against a broad range of organisms both gram –ve and gram +ve. They are active against a number of fungus and protozoal organisms including several pathogenic varieties. Aqueous solutions of these agents are not active against such organisms as spore forming bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and viruses.

In general, these surfactants are considered to be adsorbed upon the surface of the bacterial. Probably, the action most responsible for activity is the inactivation of certain enzymes which follows adsorption. Also contributing to the ultimate death of the bacterial cell is the occurrence of a change in the cell wall integrity and a lysis of intracellular components.

In addition to the potent and wide range of anti-microbial activity, these agents possess several other advantages which make them useful germicides. Included are their properties of low toxicity, high water solubility, non staining, high stability in aqueous solutions and non corrosiveness to metallic instruments. Also they possess the surfactant properties of wetting and detergency, which increase the usefulness as germicides and disinfectants.

They are generally used for cleaning and disinfection of instruments, utensils for milking and dairy operation, instruments soak etc., It has no adverse smell. The limitations are being non tuberculocidal and limited virucidal activity. It is inactivated by protein and soap.

Benzalkonium chloride:

Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound. It is freely soluble in water and alcohol. Possesses wetting, detergent and emulsifying actions. It is effective against many pathogenic, non-sporulating bacteria and fungus. It is non-toxic, non irritating, non bleaching and non volatile.

Limitations:

They are inactivated by soaps and other anionic surfactants. All traces of soap should be removed from the skin or other surfaces before using these agents. The presence of Ca and Mg. ions in hard water has been reported to decrease antibacterial activity. Non ionic surfactants have also been reported to reduce this activity. Inactivation also occurs in presence of organic matter, blood serum, food residues etc. Temperature and pH are additional factors which influence their action. Activity is greater in basic solution than in neutral or acid solution and a greater activity occurs as temperature is increased.

MODE OF ACTION OF VARIOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS
 
 
1. Alcohols
Advantages
Limitations
:
:
:
Protein coagulation and dissolution of membrane lipids
Rapidly bactericidal, tuberculocidal
Not sporicidal
2. Formaldehyde
Advantages
Limitations
:
:
:
Substitution of cell alkyl groups for labile hydrogen atoms
Vapor disinfection of delicate instruments, sporicidal, non corrosive
Requires long period for effective Disinfection. Odorous, toxic to skin and mucous membranes
3. Chlorines/Iodines
Advantages
i. Chlorines
ii. Iodines

Limitations
i. Chlorines
ii. Iodines
:

:
:


:
:
Inactivate by oxidizing free sulfhydryl groups

Tuberculocidal unless highly diluted
Iodophors are cleaning and disinfecting, non staining, leave residual anti bacterial effect and are tuberculocidal as tinctures

Bleach fabrics, corrode metals, unstable in hard water, must be freshly prepared
Tincture of iodine stains and is irritating to tissues. Iodophors are somewhat unstable and are inactivated by hard water, may corrode metals
4. Phenolics

Advantages

Limitations
:

:

:
Protein coagulation. They destroy selective permeability of cell membranes, resulting in leakage of cell constituents
Not inactivated by organic matter, soap or hard water (except creosol), residual effect if allowed to dry on surfaces, high detergency
Creosol must be used in soft water and so slow acting, Lysol and creosol both have odours that may be objectionable
5. Quaternary ammonium compound
Advantages
Limitations
:


:
:
Concentrate at the cell membrane and probably act by disrupting the normal function of the membrane

Low toxicity, high water solubility, non staining, high stability
Not tuberculocidal, limited viricidal activity. Is inactivated by protein, soap
6. Soap

Advantages
Limitations
:

:
:
Concentrate at the cell membrane and probably act by disrupting the normal function of the membrane
Good cleaners and have prolonged antibacterial action
Not sporicidal, not tuberculocidal, have slow action
7. Cationic detergents : These include the many quaternary ammonium compounds. Because of their surface active properties, they are excellent cleansing agents for skin, burns, wounds and inanimate objects.
They are more active against gram positive than gram negative organisms.
In high dilutions they are bacteriostatic, but spores, viruses, mycobacteria and pseudomonas aeruginosa are relatively resistant.
This class of detergent is neutralized by soaps and anionic detergents.
8. Dialdehydes : Glutaraldehyde is the most widely used compound of this group. It has one of the widest spectrums of any disinfectant being bactericidal, viricidal, fungicidal and sporicidal.
 
     
 
     
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